Nosema Disease of European Honey Bees
Nosematosis is currently a frequently discussed honey bee disease caused by two types of Microsporidia: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosematosis as an intestinal disease caused by these species is one of the main factors associated with the weakening and loss of hives, with none of the stressors acting in isolation and all having an important synergistic or additive effect on the occurrence of parasitic infection. The most important factors are exposure to pesticides and nutritional stress, both worsening the immune response. Honey bees Apis mellifera become more susceptible to parasites and subsequently the disease manifests itself. Choosing the right laboratory diagnostics is important to determine the prevalence of both species. Our review summarizes the most commonly used methodologies, especially polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a reliable method for detecting nosematosis, as well as for distinguishing between the two species causing the disease.